The Csicsvari group focuses on the hippocampus, a brain area known to be important for memory formation, and aims to understand how learning leads to memory formation. During learning, memory traces are processed and encoded in neuronal circuits and consolidated for later recall. The group seeks to understand how neuronal circuits process such learning-related information and form memory by recording the activity of many neurons in different brain circuits during learning tasks and sleep. They use a technique called ‘multi-channel extracellular recording’ which monitors the electrical activity of many neurons in different brain circuits in behaving rodents. This work involves the use of sophisticated microelectrode arrays (e.g. silicon microelectrodes) during complex behavioural tasks. In addition, optogenetic methods are used to selectively manipulate neuronal activity in the hippocampus. Different learning tasks allow the researchers to investigate the mnemonic coding of neuronal assemblies and the role of oscillatory activity during encoding, consolidation and recall of mnemonic information. Memory consolidation requires the hippocampus to interact with other cortical regions, and the Csicsvari group investigates whether and how synchronous oscillations between the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex facilitate consolidation and the ultimate storage of memories. The large volume of complex electrophysiological data collected in these experiments requires sophisticated computer analysis techniques as well as the development of new computational analysis techniques.